However, individuals are taxed at various rates according to the band in which they fall. Further, the partnership firms are also taxed at flat rate. Taxable income of taxpayers resident in the jurisdiction is generally total income less income producing expenses and other deductions. Generally, only net gain from sale of property, including goods held for sale, is included in income. Income of a corporation’s shareholders usually includes distributions of profits from the corporation.
Most jurisdictions require self-assessment of the tax and require payers of some types of income to withhold tax from those payments. Advance payments of tax by taxpayers may be required. Taxpayers not timely paying tax owed are generally subject to significant penalties, which may include jail for individuals or revocation of an entity’s legal existence. The concept of taxing income is a modern innovation and presupposes several things: a money economy, reasonably accurate accounts, a common understanding of receipts, expenses and profits, and an orderly society with reliable records.
For most of the history of civilization, these preconditions did not exist, and taxes were based on other factors. The first income tax is generally attributed to Egypt. In the early days of the Roman Republic, public taxes consisted of modest assessments on owned wealth and property. In the year 10 AD, Emperor Wang Mang of the Xin Dynasty instituted an unprecedented income tax, at the rate of 10 percent of profits, for professionals and skilled labor. He was overthrown 13 years later in 23 AD and earlier policies were restored during the reestablished Han Dynasty which followed. One of the first recorded taxes on income was the Saladin tithe introduced by Henry II in 1188 to raise money for the Third Crusade. William Pitt the Younger introduced a progressive income tax in 1798.
The inception date of the modern income tax is typically accepted as 1799, at the suggestion of Henry Beeke, the future Dean of Bristol. Pitt’s income tax was levied from 1799 to 1802, when it was abolished by Henry Addington during the Peace of Amiens. Punch readers of a proposed 1907 income tax by the Labour Party in the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, income tax was reintroduced by Sir Robert Peel by the Income Tax Act 1842. A committee was formed in 1851 under Joseph Hume to investigate the matter, but failed to reach a clear recommendation.
In 1913, the Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution made the income tax a permanent fixture in the U. While tax rules vary widely, there are certain basic principles common to most income tax systems. Tax systems in Canada, China, Germany, Singapore, the United Kingdom, and the United States, among others, follow most of the principles outlined below. Individuals are often taxed at different rates than corporations. Tax systems in countries other than the USA treat an entity as a corporation only if it is legally organized as a corporation. Estates and trusts are usually subject to special tax provisions.
Other taxable entities are generally treated as partnerships. Separate taxes are assessed against each taxpayer meeting certain minimum criteria. Many systems allow married individuals to request joint assessment. Many systems allow controlled groups of locally organized corporations to be jointly assessed. Some systems impose higher rates on higher amounts of income. Example: Elbonia taxes income below E.
Tax rates schedules may vary for individuals based on marital status. Residents are generally taxed differently from nonresidents. Few jurisdictions tax nonresidents other than on specific types of income earned within the jurisdiction. Residents, however, are generally subject to income tax on all worldwide income. Residence is often defined for individuals as presence in the country for more than 183 days.
Most countries base residence of entities on either place of organization or place of management and control. The United Kingdom has three levels of residence. Most systems define income subject to tax broadly for residents, but tax nonresidents only on specific types of income. What is included in income for individuals may differ from what is included for entities. The timing of recognizing income may differ by type of taxpayer or type of income. Income generally includes most types of receipts that enrich the taxpayer, including compensation for services, gain from sale of goods or other property, interest, dividends, rents, royalties, annuities, pensions, and all manner of other items. Many systems exclude from income part or all of superannuation or other national retirement plan payments.